Using Parsers

All of Tree-sitter’s parsing functionality is exposed through C APIs. Applications written in higher-level languages can use Tree-sitter via binding libraries like node-tree-sitter or the tree-sitter rust crate, which have their own documentation.

This document will describe the general concepts of how to use Tree-sitter, which should be relevant regardless of what language you’re using. It also goes into some C-specific details that are useful if you’re using the C API directly or are building a new binding to a different language.

All of the API functions shown here are declared and documented in the tree_sitter/api.h header file. You may also want to browse the online Rust API docs, which correspond to the C APIs closely.

Getting Started

Building the Library

To build the library on a POSIX system, just run make in the Tree-sitter directory. This will create a static library called libtree-sitter.a as well as dynamic libraries.

Alternatively, you can incorporate the library in a larger project’s build system by adding one source file to the build. This source file needs two directories to be in the include path when compiled:

source file:

include directories:

The Basic Objects

There are four main types of objects involved when using Tree-sitter: languages, parsers, syntax trees, and syntax nodes. In C, these are called TSLanguage, TSParser, TSTree, and TSNode.

An Example Program

Here’s an example of a simple C program that uses the Tree-sitter JSON parser.

// Filename - test-json-parser.c

#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <tree_sitter/api.h>

// Declare the `tree_sitter_json` function, which is
// implemented by the `tree-sitter-json` library.
const TSLanguage *tree_sitter_json(void);

int main() {
  // Create a parser.
  TSParser *parser = ts_parser_new();

  // Set the parser's language (JSON in this case).
  ts_parser_set_language(parser, tree_sitter_json());

  // Build a syntax tree based on source code stored in a string.
  const char *source_code = "[1, null]";
  TSTree *tree = ts_parser_parse_string(

  // Get the root node of the syntax tree.
  TSNode root_node = ts_tree_root_node(tree);

  // Get some child nodes.
  TSNode array_node = ts_node_named_child(root_node, 0);
  TSNode number_node = ts_node_named_child(array_node, 0);

  // Check that the nodes have the expected types.
  assert(strcmp(ts_node_type(root_node), "document") == 0);
  assert(strcmp(ts_node_type(array_node), "array") == 0);
  assert(strcmp(ts_node_type(number_node), "number") == 0);

  // Check that the nodes have the expected child counts.
  assert(ts_node_child_count(root_node) == 1);
  assert(ts_node_child_count(array_node) == 5);
  assert(ts_node_named_child_count(array_node) == 2);
  assert(ts_node_child_count(number_node) == 0);

  // Print the syntax tree as an S-expression.
  char *string = ts_node_string(root_node);
  printf("Syntax tree: %s\n", string);

  // Free all of the heap-allocated memory.
  return 0;

This program uses the Tree-sitter C API, which is declared in the header file tree-sitter/api.h, so we need to add the tree-sitter/lib/include directory to the include path. We also need to link libtree-sitter.a into the binary. We compile the source code of the JSON language directly into the binary as well.

clang                                   \
  -I tree-sitter/lib/include            \
  test-json-parser.c                    \
  tree-sitter-json/src/parser.c         \
  tree-sitter/libtree-sitter.a          \
  -o test-json-parser


Basic Parsing

Providing the Code

In the example above, we parsed source code stored in a simple string using the ts_parser_parse_string function:

TSTree *ts_parser_parse_string(
  TSParser *self,
  const TSTree *old_tree,
  const char *string,
  uint32_t length

You may want to parse source code that’s stored in a custom data structure, like a piece table or a rope. In this case, you can use the more general ts_parser_parse function:

TSTree *ts_parser_parse(
  TSParser *self,
  const TSTree *old_tree,
  TSInput input

The TSInput structure lets you provide your own function for reading a chunk of text at a given byte offset and row/column position. The function can return text encoded in either UTF8 or UTF16. This interface allows you to efficiently parse text that is stored in your own data structure.

typedef struct {
  void *payload;
  const char *(*read)(
    void *payload,
    uint32_t byte_offset,
    TSPoint position,
    uint32_t *bytes_read
  TSInputEncoding encoding;
} TSInput;

Syntax Nodes

Tree-sitter provides a DOM-style interface for inspecting syntax trees. A syntax node’s type is a string that indicates which grammar rule the node represents.

const char *ts_node_type(TSNode);

Syntax nodes store their position in the source code both in terms of raw bytes and row/column coordinates:

uint32_t ts_node_start_byte(TSNode);
uint32_t ts_node_end_byte(TSNode);

typedef struct {
  uint32_t row;
  uint32_t column;
} TSPoint;

TSPoint ts_node_start_point(TSNode);
TSPoint ts_node_end_point(TSNode);

Retrieving Nodes

Every tree has a root node:

TSNode ts_tree_root_node(const TSTree *);

Once you have a node, you can access the node’s children:

uint32_t ts_node_child_count(TSNode);
TSNode ts_node_child(TSNode, uint32_t);

You can also access its siblings and parent:

TSNode ts_node_next_sibling(TSNode);
TSNode ts_node_prev_sibling(TSNode);
TSNode ts_node_parent(TSNode);

These methods may all return a null node to indicate, for example, that a node does not have a next sibling. You can check if a node is null:

bool ts_node_is_null(TSNode);

Named vs Anonymous Nodes

Tree-sitter produces concrete syntax trees - trees that contain nodes for every individual token in the source code, including things like commas and parentheses. This is important for use-cases that deal with individual tokens, like syntax highlighting. But some types of code analysis are easier to perform using an abstract syntax tree - a tree in which the less important details have been removed. Tree-sitter’s trees support these use cases by making a distinction between named and anonymous nodes.

Consider a grammar rule like this:

if_statement: ($) => seq("if", "(", $._expression, ")", $._statement);

A syntax node representing an if_statement in this language would have 5 children: the condition expression, the body statement, as well as the if, (, and ) tokens. The expression and the statement would be marked as named nodes, because they have been given explicit names in the grammar. But the if, (, and ) nodes would not be named nodes, because they are represented in the grammar as simple strings.

You can check whether any given node is named:

bool ts_node_is_named(TSNode);

When traversing the tree, you can also choose to skip over anonymous nodes by using the _named_ variants of all of the methods described above:

TSNode ts_node_named_child(TSNode, uint32_t);
uint32_t ts_node_named_child_count(TSNode);
TSNode ts_node_next_named_sibling(TSNode);
TSNode ts_node_prev_named_sibling(TSNode);

If you use this group of methods, the syntax tree functions much like an abstract syntax tree.

Node Field Names

To make syntax nodes easier to analyze, many grammars assign unique field names to particular child nodes. The next page explains how to do this on your own grammars. If a syntax node has fields, you can access its children using their field name:

TSNode ts_node_child_by_field_name(
  TSNode self,
  const char *field_name,
  uint32_t field_name_length

Fields also have numeric ids that you can use, if you want to avoid repeated string comparisons. You can convert between strings and ids using the TSLanguage:

uint32_t ts_language_field_count(const TSLanguage *);
const char *ts_language_field_name_for_id(const TSLanguage *, TSFieldId);
TSFieldId ts_language_field_id_for_name(const TSLanguage *, const char *, uint32_t);

The field ids can be used in place of the name:

TSNode ts_node_child_by_field_id(TSNode, TSFieldId);

Advanced Parsing


In applications like text editors, you often need to re-parse a file after its source code has changed. Tree-sitter is designed to support this use case efficiently. There are two steps required. First, you must edit the syntax tree, which adjusts the ranges of its nodes so that they stay in sync with the code.

typedef struct {
  uint32_t start_byte;
  uint32_t old_end_byte;
  uint32_t new_end_byte;
  TSPoint start_point;
  TSPoint old_end_point;
  TSPoint new_end_point;
} TSInputEdit;

void ts_tree_edit(TSTree *, const TSInputEdit *);

Then, you can call ts_parser_parse again, passing in the old tree. This will create a new tree that internally shares structure with the old tree.

When you edit a syntax tree, the positions of its nodes will change. If you have stored any TSNode instances outside of the TSTree, you must update their positions separately, using the same TSInput value, in order to update their cached positions.

void ts_node_edit(TSNode *, const TSInputEdit *);

This ts_node_edit function is only needed in the case where you have retrieved TSNode instances before editing the tree, and then after editing the tree, you want to continue to use those specific node instances. Often, you’ll just want to re-fetch nodes from the edited tree, in which case ts_node_edit is not needed.

Multi-language Documents

Sometimes, different parts of a file may be written in different languages. For example, templating languages like EJS and ERB allow you to generate HTML by writing a mixture of HTML and another language like JavaScript or Ruby.

Tree-sitter handles these types of documents by allowing you to create a syntax tree based on the text in certain ranges of a file.

typedef struct {
  TSPoint start_point;
  TSPoint end_point;
  uint32_t start_byte;
  uint32_t end_byte;
} TSRange;

void ts_parser_set_included_ranges(
  TSParser *self,
  const TSRange *ranges,
  uint32_t range_count

For example, consider this ERB document:

  <% people.each do |person| %>
    <li><%= %></li>
  <% end %>

Conceptually, it can be represented by three syntax trees with overlapping ranges: an ERB syntax tree, a Ruby syntax tree, and an HTML syntax tree. You could generate these syntax trees with the following code:

#include <string.h>
#include <tree_sitter/api.h>

// These functions are each implemented in their own repo.
const TSLanguage *tree_sitter_embedded_template(void);
const TSLanguage *tree_sitter_html(void);
const TSLanguage *tree_sitter_ruby(void);

int main(int argc, const char **argv) {
  const char *text = argv[1];
  unsigned len = strlen(text);

  // Parse the entire text as ERB.
  TSParser *parser = ts_parser_new();
  ts_parser_set_language(parser, tree_sitter_embedded_template());
  TSTree *erb_tree = ts_parser_parse_string(parser, NULL, text, len);
  TSNode erb_root_node = ts_tree_root_node(erb_tree);

  // In the ERB syntax tree, find the ranges of the `content` nodes,
  // which represent the underlying HTML, and the `code` nodes, which
  // represent the interpolated Ruby.
  TSRange html_ranges[10];
  TSRange ruby_ranges[10];
  unsigned html_range_count = 0;
  unsigned ruby_range_count = 0;
  unsigned child_count = ts_node_child_count(erb_root_node);

  for (unsigned i = 0; i < child_count; i++) {
    TSNode node = ts_node_child(erb_root_node, i);
    if (strcmp(ts_node_type(node), "content") == 0) {
      html_ranges[html_range_count++] = (TSRange) {
    } else {
      TSNode code_node = ts_node_named_child(node, 0);
      ruby_ranges[ruby_range_count++] = (TSRange) {

  // Use the HTML ranges to parse the HTML.
  ts_parser_set_language(parser, tree_sitter_html());
  ts_parser_set_included_ranges(parser, html_ranges, html_range_count);
  TSTree *html_tree = ts_parser_parse_string(parser, NULL, text, len);
  TSNode html_root_node = ts_tree_root_node(html_tree);

  // Use the Ruby ranges to parse the Ruby.
  ts_parser_set_language(parser, tree_sitter_ruby());
  ts_parser_set_included_ranges(parser, ruby_ranges, ruby_range_count);
  TSTree *ruby_tree = ts_parser_parse_string(parser, NULL, text, len);
  TSNode ruby_root_node = ts_tree_root_node(ruby_tree);

  // Print all three trees.
  char *erb_sexp = ts_node_string(erb_root_node);
  char *html_sexp = ts_node_string(html_root_node);
  char *ruby_sexp = ts_node_string(ruby_root_node);
  printf("ERB: %s\n", erb_sexp);
  printf("HTML: %s\n", html_sexp);
  printf("Ruby: %s\n", ruby_sexp);
  return 0;

This API allows for great flexibility in how languages can be composed. Tree-sitter is not responsible for mediating the interactions between languages. Instead, you are free to do that using arbitrary application-specific logic.


Tree-sitter supports multi-threaded use cases by making syntax trees very cheap to copy.

TSTree *ts_tree_copy(const TSTree *);

Internally, copying a syntax tree just entails incrementing an atomic reference count. Conceptually, it provides you a new tree which you can freely query, edit, reparse, or delete on a new thread while continuing to use the original tree on a different thread. Note that individual TSTree instances are not thread safe; you must copy a tree if you want to use it on multiple threads simultaneously.

Other Tree Operations

Walking Trees with Tree Cursors

You can access every node in a syntax tree using the TSNode APIs described above, but if you need to access a large number of nodes, the fastest way to do so is with a tree cursor. A cursor is a stateful object that allows you to walk a syntax tree with maximum efficiency.

Note that the given input node is considered the root of the cursor, and the cursor cannot walk outside this node, so going to the parent or any sibling of the root node will return false. This has no unexpected effects if the given input node is the actual root node of the tree, but is something to keep in mind when using nodes that are not the root node.

You can initialize a cursor from any node:

TSTreeCursor ts_tree_cursor_new(TSNode);

You can move the cursor around the tree:

bool ts_tree_cursor_goto_first_child(TSTreeCursor *);
bool ts_tree_cursor_goto_next_sibling(TSTreeCursor *);
bool ts_tree_cursor_goto_parent(TSTreeCursor *);

These methods return true if the cursor successfully moved and false if there was no node to move to.

You can always retrieve the cursor’s current node, as well as the field name that is associated with the current node.

TSNode ts_tree_cursor_current_node(const TSTreeCursor *);
const char *ts_tree_cursor_current_field_name(const TSTreeCursor *);
TSFieldId ts_tree_cursor_current_field_id(const TSTreeCursor *);

Pattern Matching with Queries

Many code analysis tasks involve searching for patterns in syntax trees. Tree-sitter provides a small declarative language for expressing these patterns and searching for matches. The language is similar to the format of Tree-sitter’s unit test system.

Query Syntax

A query consists of one or more patterns, where each pattern is an S-expression that matches a certain set of nodes in a syntax tree. The expression to match a given node consists of a pair of parentheses containing two things: the node’s type, and optionally, a series of other S-expressions that match the node’s children. For example, this pattern would match any binary_expression node whose children are both number_literal nodes:

(binary_expression (number_literal) (number_literal))

Children can also be omitted. For example, this would match any binary_expression where at least one of child is a string_literal node:

(binary_expression (string_literal))


In general, it’s a good idea to make patterns more specific by specifying field names associated with child nodes. You do this by prefixing a child pattern with a field name followed by a colon. For example, this pattern would match an assignment_expression node where the left child is a member_expression whose object is a call_expression.

  left: (member_expression
    object: (call_expression)))

Negated Fields

You can also constrain a pattern so that it only matches nodes that lack a certain field. To do this, add a field name prefixed by a ! within the parent pattern. For example, this pattern would match a class declaration with no type parameters:

  name: (identifier) @class_name

Anonymous Nodes

The parenthesized syntax for writing nodes only applies to named nodes. To match specific anonymous nodes, you write their name between double quotes. For example, this pattern would match any binary_expression where the operator is != and the right side is null:

  operator: "!="
  right: (null))

Capturing Nodes

When matching patterns, you may want to process specific nodes within the pattern. Captures allow you to associate names with specific nodes in a pattern, so that you can later refer to those nodes by those names. Capture names are written after the nodes that they refer to, and start with an @ character.

For example, this pattern would match any assignment of a function to an identifier, and it would associate the name the-function-name with the identifier:

  left: (identifier) @the-function-name
  right: (function))

And this pattern would match all method definitions, associating the name the-method-name with the method name, the-class-name with the containing class name:

  name: (identifier) @the-class-name
  body: (class_body
      name: (property_identifier) @the-method-name)))

Quantification Operators

You can match a repeating sequence of sibling nodes using the postfix + and * repetition operators, which work analogously to the + and * operators in regular expressions. The + operator matches one or more repetitions of a pattern, and the * operator matches zero or more.

For example, this pattern would match a sequence of one or more comments:


This pattern would match a class declaration, capturing all of the decorators if any were present:

  (decorator)* @the-decorator
  name: (identifier) @the-name)

You can also mark a node as optional using the ? operator. For example, this pattern would match all function calls, capturing a string argument if one was present:

  function: (identifier) @the-function
  arguments: (arguments (string)? @the-string-arg))

Grouping Sibling Nodes

You can also use parentheses for grouping a sequence of sibling nodes. For example, this pattern would match a comment followed by a function declaration:


Any of the quantification operators mentioned above (+, *, and ?) can also be applied to groups. For example, this pattern would match a comma-separated series of numbers:

  ("," (number))*


An alternation is written as a pair of square brackets ([]) containing a list of alternative patterns. This is similar to character classes from regular expressions ([abc] matches either a, b, or c).

For example, this pattern would match a call to either a variable or an object property. In the case of a variable, capture it as @function, and in the case of a property, capture it as @method:

  function: [
    (identifier) @function
      property: (property_identifier) @method)

This pattern would match a set of possible keyword tokens, capturing them as @keyword:

] @keyword

Wildcard Node

A wildcard node is represented with an underscore (_), it matches any node. This is similar to . in regular expressions. There are two types, (_) will match any named node, and _ will match any named or anonymous node.

For example, this pattern would match any node inside a call:

(call (_) @call.inner)


The anchor operator, ., is used to constrain the ways in which child patterns are matched. It has different behaviors depending on where it’s placed inside a query.

When . is placed before the first child within a parent pattern, the child will only match when it is the first named node in the parent. For example, the below pattern matches a given array node at most once, assigning the @the-element capture to the first identifier node in the parent array:

(array . (identifier) @the-element)

Without this anchor, the pattern would match once for every identifier in the array, with @the-element bound to each matched identifier.

Similarly, an anchor placed after a pattern’s last child will cause that child pattern to only match nodes that are the last named child of their parent. The below pattern matches only nodes that are the last named child within a block.

(block (_) @last-expression .)

Finally, an anchor between two child patterns will cause the patterns to only match nodes that are immediate siblings. The pattern below, given a long dotted name like a.b.c.d, will only match pairs of consecutive identifiers: a, b, b, c, and c, d.

  (identifier) @prev-id
  (identifier) @next-id)

Without the anchor, non-consecutive pairs like a, c and b, d would also be matched.

The restrictions placed on a pattern by an anchor operator ignore anonymous nodes.


You can also specify arbitrary metadata and conditions associated with a pattern by adding predicate S-expressions anywhere within your pattern. Predicate S-expressions start with a predicate name beginning with a # character. After that, they can contain an arbitrary number of @-prefixed capture names or strings.

Tree-Sitter’s CLI supports the following predicates by default:

eq?, not-eq?, any-eq?, any-not-eq?

This family of predicates allows you to match against a single capture or string value.

The first argument must be a capture, but the second can be either a capture to compare the two captures’ text, or a string to compare first capture’s text against.

The base predicate is “#eq?”, but its complement “#not-eq?” can be used to not match a value.

Consider the following example targeting C:

((identifier) @variable.builtin
  (#eq? @variable.builtin "self"))

This pattern would match any identifier that is self.

And this pattern would match key-value pairs where the value is an identifier with the same name as the key:

    key: (property_identifier) @key-name
    value: (identifier) @value-name)
  (#eq? @key-name @value-name)

The prefix “any-“ is meant for use with quantified captures. Here’s an example finding a segment of empty comments

((comment)+ @comment.empty
  (#any-eq? @comment.empty "//"))

Note that “#any-eq?” will match a quantified capture if any of the nodes match the predicate, while by default a quantified capture will only match if all the nodes match the predicate.

match?, not-match?, any-match?, any-not-match?

These predicates are similar to the eq? predicates, but they use regular expressions to match against the capture’s text.

The first argument must be a capture, and the second must be a string containing a regular expression.

For example, this pattern would match identifier whose name is written in SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE:

((identifier) @constant
  (#match? @constant "^[A-Z][A-Z_]+"))

Here’s an example finding potential documentation comments in C

((comment)+ @comment.documentation
  (#match? @comment.documentation "^///\\s+.*"))

Here’s another example finding Cgo comments to potentially inject with C

((comment)+ @injection.content
    (import_spec path: (interpreted_string_literal) @_import_c))
  (#eq? @_import_c "\"C\"")
  (#match? @injection.content "^//"))
any-of?, not-any-of?

The “any-of?” predicate allows you to match a capture against multiple strings, and will match if the capture’s text is equal to any of the strings.

Consider this example that targets JavaScript:

((identifier) @variable.builtin
  (#any-of? @variable.builtin

This will match any of the builtin variables in JavaScript.

Note — Predicates are not handled directly by the Tree-sitter C library. They are just exposed in a structured form so that higher-level code can perform the filtering. However, higher-level bindings to Tree-sitter like the Rust Crate or the WebAssembly binding do implement a few common predicates like the #eq?, #match?, and #any-of? predicates explained above.

To recap about the predicates Tree-Sitter’s bindings support:

The Query API

Create a query by specifying a string containing one or more patterns:

TSQuery *ts_query_new(
  const TSLanguage *language,
  const char *source,
  uint32_t source_len,
  uint32_t *error_offset,
  TSQueryError *error_type

If there is an error in the query, then the error_offset argument will be set to the byte offset of the error, and the error_type argument will be set to a value that indicates the type of error:

typedef enum {
  TSQueryErrorNone = 0,
} TSQueryError;

The TSQuery value is immutable and can be safely shared between threads. To execute the query, create a TSQueryCursor, which carries the state needed for processing the queries. The query cursor should not be shared between threads, but can be reused for many query executions.

TSQueryCursor *ts_query_cursor_new(void);

You can then execute the query on a given syntax node:

void ts_query_cursor_exec(TSQueryCursor *, const TSQuery *, TSNode);

You can then iterate over the matches:

typedef struct {
  TSNode node;
  uint32_t index;
} TSQueryCapture;

typedef struct {
  uint32_t id;
  uint16_t pattern_index;
  uint16_t capture_count;
  const TSQueryCapture *captures;
} TSQueryMatch;

bool ts_query_cursor_next_match(TSQueryCursor *, TSQueryMatch *match);

This function will return false when there are no more matches. Otherwise, it will populate the match with data about which pattern matched and which nodes were captured.

Static Node Types

In languages with static typing, it can be helpful for syntax trees to provide specific type information about individual syntax nodes. Tree-sitter makes this information available via a generated file called node-types.json. This node types file provides structured data about every possible syntax node in a grammar.

You can use this data to generate type declarations in statically-typed programming languages. For example, GitHub’s Semantic uses these node types files to generate Haskell data types for every possible syntax node, which allows for code analysis algorithms to be structurally verified by the Haskell type system.

The node types file contains an array of objects, each of which describes a particular type of syntax node using the following entries:

Basic Info

Every object in this array has these two entries:


  "type": "string_literal",
  "named": true
  "type": "+",
  "named": false

Together, these two fields constitute a unique identifier for a node type; no two top-level objects in the node-types.json should have the same values for both "type" and "named".

Internal Nodes

Many syntax nodes can have children. The node type object describes the possible children that a node can have using the following entries:

A child type object describes a set of child nodes using the following entries:

Example with fields:

  "type": "method_definition",
  "named": true,
  "fields": {
    "body": {
      "multiple": false,
      "required": true,
      "types": [{ "type": "statement_block", "named": true }]
    "decorator": {
      "multiple": true,
      "required": false,
      "types": [{ "type": "decorator", "named": true }]
    "name": {
      "multiple": false,
      "required": true,
      "types": [
        { "type": "computed_property_name", "named": true },
        { "type": "property_identifier", "named": true }
    "parameters": {
      "multiple": false,
      "required": true,
      "types": [{ "type": "formal_parameters", "named": true }]

Example with children:

  "type": "array",
  "named": true,
  "fields": {},
  "children": {
    "multiple": true,
    "required": false,
    "types": [
      { "type": "_expression", "named": true },
      { "type": "spread_element", "named": true }

Supertype Nodes

In Tree-sitter grammars, there are usually certain rules that represent abstract categories of syntax nodes (e.g. “expression”, “type”, “declaration”). In the grammar.js file, these are often written as hidden rules whose definition is a simple choice where each member is just a single symbol.

Normally, hidden rules are not mentioned in the node types file, since they don’t appear in the syntax tree. But if you add a hidden rule to the grammar’s supertypes list, then it will show up in the node types file, with the following special entry:


  "type": "_declaration",
  "named": true,
  "subtypes": [
    { "type": "class_declaration", "named": true },
    { "type": "function_declaration", "named": true },
    { "type": "generator_function_declaration", "named": true },
    { "type": "lexical_declaration", "named": true },
    { "type": "variable_declaration", "named": true }

Supertype nodes will also appear elsewhere in the node types file, as children of other node types, in a way that corresponds with how the supertype rule was used in the grammar. This can make the node types much shorter and easier to read, because a single supertype will take the place of multiple subtypes.


  "type": "export_statement",
  "named": true,
  "fields": {
    "declaration": {
      "multiple": false,
      "required": false,
      "types": [{ "type": "_declaration", "named": true }]
    "source": {
      "multiple": false,
      "required": false,
      "types": [{ "type": "string", "named": true }]